Biblio Citation Abstract
Turknett, R., Westing B., & Moore S. (2013).  1000 words: advanced visualization for the humanities. Proceedings of the Conference on Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment: Gateway to Discovery.

1000 Words is a project that supports large-scale discoveries in the humanities and whose current aim is to provide arts and humanities researchers accessible methods of advances visualizations of a large amount of data in an understandable and interactive way. This paper specifically deals with the Massive Pixel Environment (MPE), which is a software library made for the purpose of extending Processing, and open source programming language environment, to work with multi-node tiled display systems. The tiled display system is one of the most powerful visualization systems available which is made from a number of different displays, such as desktop monitors or video projectors, that are interconnected through a networking system. However, this system cannot run the usual software applications such as Linux, Mac, or Windows. MPE, through a couple of short codes, extends Processing to work with tiled display systems. The active online presence of the community provides many open-source sketches and work to build on and is easily accessible to arts and humanities researchers.

Drucker, J. (2006).  Graphical Readings and the Visual Aesthetics of Textuality. Text. 16, 267–276.

Drucker begins by illustrating how literary critics often diminish the value of visual aesthetics in favour of the "substance" of textuality. However, Drucker argues that it is critical to understand that layout, colour, typeface, and other visual markers help to convey meaning. Drucker's aim is to "propose an understanding of all graphical elements as dynamic entities." Drucker suggests that "the specific properties of evidence and obvious graphical elements, though frequently unnoticed, are an important part of semantic meaning production." In order to illustrate this, Drucker takes up the examples of William Morris' Kelmscott Chaucer and Stephane Mallarme's Un Coup de Des as evidences to the interpretative significance of the presence, or absence, of graphics.

Burley, D. (2010).  Information Visualization As A Knowledge Integration Tool. Journal of Knowledge Management Practice. 11,

In this article, Burley defines information visualization and explore stye various approaches/tools that facilitate this style of research. Burley understand information visualization as a "valuable tools for knowledge integration activities." Information visualization promotes data exploration, which in turn leads to new insights and interactions with large data sets. As an "applied science," Burley argues that information visualization amplifies human cognition. Moving toward the practical, Burly discusses various visualization tools and techniques in regards to data "types." In conclusion, Burley asserts once again that information visualization is sitting at the forefront of the scholarly conversation about effectively displaying data.

Jessop, M. (2008).  Digital visualization as a scholarly activity. Literary and Linguistic Computing. 23, 281–293.

In this article, Jessop asserts that digital technology has created a new medium for visual metaphors to perpetuate cognitive processes. Jessop argues that knowledge is created not revealed and that visualizations are one way of manifesting knowledge. Jessop argues that visualizations are characterized by three components that make them different from images more generally: they are interactive, they can be manipulated, and they communicate information. In order to illustrate these components, Jessop discusses the London Charters project. In conclusion, Jessop argues that visualizations must be understood as rhetorical devices.

Manovich, L. (2011).  What is visualisation?. Visual Studies. 26, 36–49.

In this article, Lev Manovich wrestles with the question of what is information visualization. In his exploration of this question, Manovich strives to differentiate between the two similar genres of scientific visualization and information design. Manovich argues that scientific visualization normally relies on accurate, three dimensional renderings, information design approaches the data with a clear understanding of its structure, and information visualization uses two dimensions to discover the data using vectors. Importantly, all three genres share concerns with reduction and space. These characteristics are importantly question by what Manovich terms direct visualization, where the information in presented whole.

Kirschenbaum, M. G. (2002).  Editor's Introduction: Image-Based Humanities Computing. Computers and the Humanities. 36, 3–6.

Matthew Kirschenbaum's introduction to his edited issue in Computers and Humanities begins with, "Image-based humanities computing is an established practice located at the inter-section of a set of intellectual convictions regarding knowledge representation on the one hand, and the dramatically accelerating pace of technical research in digital imaging technologies on the other." Kirschenbaum defines image-based humanities broadly as a means of bringing visual tools to bear on artifacts. Kirschenbaum acknowledges that many projects involved in image-based digital projects are reaching their "initial plateau of completion", meaning that much of their material is accessible to the public. With this in mind, Kirschenbaum's overarching vision for the special issue is to address some of the key questions facing image-based digital humanities projects as well as to document the innovative work being conducted in the discipline.

Sinclair, S., Ruecker S., & Radzikowska M. (2013).  Information Visualization for Humanities Scholars. Literary Studies in the Digital Age: A Methodological Primer.

Sinclair, Ruecker, and Radzikowska argue that visualization systems must be evaluated based upon their ability to facilitate interpretative activity: visualizations that offer only a single vintage point into the text are of "limited usefulness" whereas visualizations that open up new interpretative avenues or ways of conceptualizing materials are infinitely more valuable. Static graphics tend to fall into the first category because, while they do represent material in a graphic manner, they lack interactivity and are therefore mainly a tool of display. On the other hand, graphics that allow interaction open up opportunities for users to information. Sinclair, Ruecker, and Radzikowska present quick snap shots of some popular visualization tools to identify the strengths and weaknesses of transforming data in this manner. Sinclair, Ruecker, and Radzikowska argue that visualizations can be used as a tool to provide insights across large collections of information. Specifically, they focus on tools such as Mandala - a grouping tool - and MONK - a clustering tool - by detailing both the abilities and shortcomings of such programs.

Drucker, J. (2011).  Humanities Approaches to Graphical Display. 5,

The digital humanities has readily adopted visualization models from disciplines outsides of the humanities. The problem with this transfer is this is that these techniques are taken wholesale and never critically questioned in a necessary manner. By reading visualizations as "observer-independent" data, the "critical distance between the phenomenal world and its interpretation" collapses and negates the space for humanistic knowledge production. Instead, visualizations must be read as capta, Drucker argues, as capta is consumed actively instead of recorded and observed. Drucker's essay launches a call to action and a challenge to rethink the digital tools used for visualizations in the humanities.

Sula, C. Alen (2012).  Visualizing social connections in the humanities: Beyond bibliometrics. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 38, 31–35.

This article by Chris Alen Sula collides digital humanities research and information visualization with a study of the relationships and social connection between humanities scholars. Generally, this type of research on social interaction has taken the form of bibliometrics. However, Sula argues that this is an inaccurate method given the nature of interactions between humanities researchers. Therefore, Sula explores how visualizations may be used (effectively or ineffectively) to represent this data. While the network graph has often been used to aid in illustrating social networks, complicated and cluttered network graphs are confusing and "hinder pattern recognition." There are possible ways of simplifying network graphs - limiting data, reducing overlapping connections, introducing a gestalt line - but Sula argues it is too early to speculate what will work. In conclusion, Sula asserts that moving beyond bibliometrics will introduce a sophistication and nuance to relationship research.

Plaisant, C., Rose J., Yu B., Auvil L., Kirschenbaum M. G., Smith M. Nell, et al. (2006).  Exploring Erotics in Emily Dickinson's Correspondence with Text Mining and Visual Interfaces. Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries. 141–150.

This article examines how document repositories can be utilized for humanities research and critical interpretation. The article specifically focuses on the rapidly expanding field of text mining. A case study of 300 XML encoded letter written between Emily Dickinson and her sister-in-law Susan Huntingdon Dickinson was used by the authors to experiment with their methods and test their theories. The authors argue that in order for computational methods to significantly effect the humanities discipline the tools developed must be concerned with scholarly interpretation and be useable by non-experts. Using a multinomial naïve Bayes algorithm, the authors trained a computer program to "read" the Dickinson correspondence for erotic language and to then classify the letters based on the appearance (or not) of this language. The panel of literary scholars was particularly pleased by how accurately the algorithm classified the letters. Feedback was given for improving aesthetic qualities of the user interface but overall the tool proved both useful and useable.

Don, A., Zheleva E., Gregory M., Tarkan S., Auvil L., Clement T., et al. (2007).  Discovering Interesting Usage Patterns in Text Collections: Integrating Text Mining with Visualization. Proceedings of the Sixteenth ACM Conference on Conference on Information and Knowledge Management. 213–222.

This article explores the use of computational methods - specifically text mining - for humanities research. The authors begin by arguing that, while humanities scholars use computers to access documents, they rarely use them to assist with literary interoperation or to develop research hypotheses. Text mining is wonderful for identifying patterns and searching through large bodies of text. However, the results it generate are often hard to interpret and, therefore, this method is avoided by humanities researchers. The authors of this article explore the development of a program called FeatureLens to is "designed to fill a gap by allowing users to interpret the results of the text mining thru visual exploration of the patterns in the text." FeatureLens "aims at integrating a set of text mining and visualization functionalities into a powerful tool, which provokes new insights and discoveries." By generating frequent expression lists, frequent work lists, and n-grams, FeatureLens is able to parse complicated text documents and reveal interesting patterns.

Brown, S., Ruecker S., Radzikowska M., Patey M., Sinclair S., Antoniuk J., et al. (2009).  Visualizing Varieties of Association in Orlando. Journal of the Chicago Colloquium on Digital Humanities and Computer Science. 1,

This article explores the use of visualization to interpret relational data. The authors of this article use the Orlando Women's Writing database as the source and case study for their visualizations. The article focuses on network data and use the concept of "six degrees of separation" as its motivation behind the visual graphics. Using Mandala, the authors create networks that showcase how authors are related to other authors, topics, place, organizations, and other critical features. The hidden XML tagging of the Orlando project is also used to generate connections between data points. The authors of this article argue that an effective visualization can add insight to data that is inaccessible through text alone.

Jessop, M. (2004).  The Visualization of Spatial Data in the Humanities. Literary and Linguistic Computing. 19, 335–350.

Visualizations and spatial graphics can often present valuable insights into the nature and meaning of humanities data. However, according to Jessop, the tight association between spatial research and GIS, accompanied by GIS' steep learning curve, means that such research is often avoided by humanities scholars. GIS works best with quantitative, spatial data, which is not conducive to many humanities research projects. In order to broaden the scope of humanities spatial research beyond GIS, Jessop examines five projects hosted out of King College London that interrogate spatial data. Through these examples, Jessop illustrates that simple graphics can be as effective as GIS when it comes to communicating information that scholars can achieve a great deal at low cost by using alternative resources.