Bibliography

Biblio Citation Abstract
Habbestad, T. (2012).  What is ARC and Why You Should Care: A Grad Student's Perspective. {HASTAC}.

In this brief blog post on HASTAC, PhD student Tess Habbestad discusses her first encounters with NINES and ARC. As a first year PhD student without any previous knowledge of the digital humanities, Habbestad was originally confused by the discipline of digital humanities and its relationship to the larger academic umbrella. The NINES project illuminated for Habbestad how digital humanities research initiatives integrated within traditional academia. Habbestad discusses the growing ARC and its influence on scholarly research. She also mentions the various digital tools being used and developed by ARC such as TypeWright and eMOP.

Mazella, D. (2009).  18th Connect and the Sustainability of Scholarly Collaboration. The Long Eighteenth.

In this brief blog post, Dave Mazella debates some of the obstacles that may face scholarly resources such as NINES or 18thConnect. Specifically Mazella addresses the "character" of collections created on the web versus traditional archives. Mazella argues that online collections tend to be less organized and more unpredictable in what they cover. While Mazella notes that this concern should not discourage scholars from attempting projects like NINES or 18thConnect, he asserts that this tendency must be considered when developing digital resources.

Dixon, V. (2010).  New Technology for Old Text. News.

In this brief report, Dixon discusses the future of OCR technologies and the advancement of OCR recognition through the development of 18thConnect. Current OCR technologies function optimally with works printed post-18th century but struggle to read older works given that the text is not written in a straight line and the ink is not always as clear. In order to develop an extensive scholarly database, 18thConnect directors Laura Mandell and Robert Markley are training computers to "read" older texts with better accuracy. The successful development of more accurate OCR software would revolutionize digital resources for texts published before standardized printing.

Felluga, D. Franco (2006).  Addressed to the Nines: The Victorian Archive and the Disappearance of the Book. Victorian Studies. 48, 305–319.

In this essay, Dino Franco Felluga discusses the rise of digital projects and their relationship to traditional print scholarship. Felluga argues that the fear of the books disappearing is unfounded. Just as the oratory progressed after the advent of literacy, so too, Felluga argues, will print continue to exist in tandem with the digital. Instead of understanding print as a fading technology, Felluga encourages scholars to conceptualize print as a skeuomorph. Skeuomorphs, Felluga argues, tends to "put brakes on the speed of new technology's adoption by and effect on users, an issue that often manifests itself at the level of the interface." Felluga offers that projects such as NINES will "offer one vision of how technology can redefine not only the way we do scholarship but also the way we understand the aesthetic, epistemological, institutional, and ideological object that is the book." This type of aggregate project, Felluga asserts, will demonstrate how the digital can move beyond the nostalgic and skeuomorphic qualities of the physical book.

Foulonneau, M., Cole T.W., Habing T.G., & Shreeves S.L. (2005).  Using collection descriptions to enhance an aggregation of harvested item-level metadata. Proceedings of the 5th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, 2005. JCDL '05. 32–41.

In this paper, Foulonneau, Cole, Habing, and Shreeves address the importance of context in granular metadata descriptions. Foulonneau et al. use this paper to illustrate "a few ways collection descriptions can be integrated into a harvested item-level metadata service." The authors discuss the Committee for Institutional Cooperation's collection description schema and connect it to the OAI repositories set up for individual item descriptions. The issues of collection description correspondence and query quality are also addressed. Foulonneau et al. conclude by suggesting that "additional work is required to more thoroughly and more systematically describe and quantify these potential benefits and describe how potential benefits depend on the character and quality of both item-level and collection-level description."

Peroni, S., Tomasi F., & Vitali F. (2013).  Reflecting on the Europeana Data Model. (Agosti, M., Esposito F., Ferilli S., & Ferro N., Ed.).Digital Libraries and Archives. 228–240.

In this paper, Peroni, Tomasi, and Vitali present the Europeana: European Digital Library project. The aim of this project, as articulated by the authors, is to "collect metadata from a large number of providers, mainly cultural institutions, across Europe, and to enable search and discovery of cultural items described therein." The Europeana project has developed is own data model that is used to categorized and describe the items in the collection. Peroni, Tomasi, and Vitali critique the media type category, use of multi-layer description, and the connections built between roles and values. Their goal is to help users carry out better queries and to obtain better query results. In order improve the data model, Peroni, Tomasi, and Vitali suggest that developer focus on mapping by enriching the metadata vocabularies, ontologies, and models.

Palmer, C. L., Zavalina O. L., & Mustafoff M. (2007).  Trends in Metadata Practices: A Longitudinal Study of Collection Federation. Proceedings of the 7th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries. 386–395.

In this piece, Palmer, Zavalina, and Mustafoff discuss the IMLS Digital Collections and Content project, which was designed to promote the development of shareable collection metadata. Palmer, Zavalina, and Mustafoff conducted an empirical study of the metadata practice across a variety of institutions. This study was longitudinal: collecting survey results in 2003 and 2006. Palmer, Zavalina, and Mustafoff focused on issues of interoperability, access, and organization in their surveys. Their results included the identification of top metadata problems, popular metadata schemes, and intended audiences. While the findings in their study was vast, Palmer, Zavalina, and Mustafoff encourage more scholars to take on this type of work because there is so much to be learned about the user community.

McGann, J. (2008).  The Future is Digital. Journal of Victorian Culture. 13, 80–88.

In this provocative essay, Jerome McGann discusses the academy's reluctance to embrace the digital future. McGann argues that information is moving from paper to digital, and the fact that modern cultural interests and scholarly interests are disconnected is a "serious social and cultural problem." McGann notes that the leading American universities - those that "define the ethos and set the standards for humanities research and education" - are reluctant to 'go digital'. McGann understands the academy's reluctance to the technology and therefore urges digital scholars to "demonstrate[s] how [their] tools improve the ways we explore and explain aesthetic works." McGann traces his own trajectory in the digital archive - from the creation of The Rossetti Archive in 1992 through to the development of NINES - as a case study of progress. McGann concludes by arguing that scholars function in a capitalist society and "Humanities scholarship has a calculable market price." He asserts that perhaps the "chief virtue of a project like NINES is to supply scholars with an institutional mechanism for preserving and protecting what we do."

Nowviskie, B. (Submitted).  Collex: Facets, Folksonomy, and Fashioning the Remixable Web. Digital Humanities 2007.

In this publication, Bethany Nowviskie unpacks the motivation, design, methodology, and practices behind the Collex tool. The tool is equipped for users to "search, browse, annotate, and tag electronic objects" and then collect them to create "illustrated, interlinked essays or exhibits." Each of the resources collected in Collex is standardized and fully integrated. This means that each resource "has contributed a package of metadata representing all of the digital objects they wish to make browseable, collectible, and available to users for re-purposing within Collex." This construction facilitates a "a non-hierarchical means of expressing ontological relationships" and allows Collex connects users to similar materials through corresponding metadata. Running in an ordinary web-browsing environment keeps Collex accessible and compatible.

Nowviskie, B., & McGann J. (2005).  NINES: A Federated Model for Integrating Digital Scholarship.

In this white paper, McGann and Nowviskie discusses the benefits of integrating a federated approach in the NINES database. McGann and Nowviskie advocate for the conception of NINES as a social system. They argue that a federated NINES promises the greatest potential "for the scholars, teachers, institutions, and students who collaborate in its resource and content development." McGann and Nowviskie value NINES as a collection space where sites that are normally "atomized and whose scholarly and educational value is indeterminate" are linked together to exponentially increased their accessibility and value. This white paper concludes with an appendix on making digital resources ready for integration with NINES.

Keller, M., Reich V., & Herkovic A. (2003).  What is a library anymore, anyway?. First Monday. 8,

Keller, Reich, and Herkovic debunk the common conception that libraries are approaching their demise. They argue that this perception is grounded in a misunderstanding about the role of the contemporary library. Traditionally, the role of the library has been to use information technology tools to serve information workers/seekers. While some people argue that libraries and librarians can exist without physical spaces, Keller, Reich, and Herkovic oppose this viewpoint. Keller, Reich, and Herkovic see libraries becoming more about access and less about ownership as information moves to the electronic form. They draw on the example of LOCKSS, implemented at Stanford University, a model of role of the contemporary library. LOCKSS is a cache of e-journals that allows libraries to create, manage, and maintain the content - instead of mere access. This means that the library has control over the content directly instead of through a publisher. Keller, Reich, and Herkovic conclude by arguing that more tools like LOCKSS - that allow the sourcing, evaluating, and preserving of content - are needed.

Krafft, D. B., Birkland A., & Cramer E. J. (2008).  Ncore: Architecture and Implementation of a Flexible, Collaborative Digital Library. Proceedings of the 8th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries. 313–322.

Krafft, Birkland, and Cramer use the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) and their newly developed NCore repository as the central object of inquiry. The NSDL was created "to provide organized access to high quality resources and tools that support innovations in teaching and learning at all levels of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education." Krafft, Birkland, and Cramer work through both the back-end and front-end of the repository by discussing the structures of aggregation; the semantics of aggregation, including classification and inheritance; users created aggregations as value-added; system integration with Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting; and, finally, the deployment of Web 2.0 tools. When this article was composed, NCore was set to release in January 2008. Krafft, Birkland, and Cramer suggested that future work would include the development of a toolkit to support easy integration, RSS feeds, and system extensions. Overall, the authors argue that "NCore implements a flexible, extensible platform for creating a new kind of digital library that integrates the best features of traditional libraries with the collaborative tools of Web 2.0."

Lagoze, C., Krafft DB., Payettei S., & Jesuroga S. (Submitted).  What Is a Digital Library Anymore, Anyway? Beyond Search and Access in the NSDL. D-Lib Magazine. 11,

Lagoze et al. open their article by announcing that "we are now in the adolescence of digital libraries. Like any adolescence, there is reason for optimism and concern." Their optimism stems from the vast expansion over "a decade of research, development, and deployment." Their concern is that we lack the "standard, scalable techniques for fully preserving [this proliferation of] information." Referring to the issue as the "googlization" of libraries, Lagoze et al. express concern that the digital library is being reduced to mere search and access functions. "This paper describes an information model for digital libraries that intentionally moves "beyond search and access", without ignoring those basic functions, and facilitates the creation of collaborative and contextual knowledge environments."

Needleman, M. (2007).  Web 2.0/Lib 2.0—What Is It? (If It’s Anything at All). Serials Review. 33, 202–203.

Mark Needleman defines and discusses the related movements of Web 2.0 and Lib 2.0. Needleman calls on O'Reilly's 2004 definition of Web 2.0 as the basis of his discussion, labelling Web 2.0 as a “business revolution in the computer industry caused by the move to the internet as platform, and an attempt to understand the rules for success on that new platform.” Needleman argues that the Web 2.0 movement is characterized by participation (not publishing), trust, collaboration, and a rich user experience. In conjunction with this, the Lib 2.0 movement is the application of Web 2.0 ideas in a library environment: discoverable data, flexible applications, and clear avenues of communication. As way of conclusion, Needleman pushes us to ask whether these movements are really shifts in paradigm or merely the result of a slow evolution.

Guerrini, M., & Possemato T. (2013).  Linked data: a new alphabet for the semantic web. JLIS. 4, 67.

Mauro Guerrini and Tiziana Possemato explore the applications of linked data. Linked data is defined by the authors as a "set of best practices required for publishing and connecting structured data on the web for use by a machine." Linked data is characterized as a function of the semantic web as it make implicit connections between resources explicit through coding and metadata. Guerrini and Possemato discuss data structuring, data inference and the open linked data project as potential answers to the question "How to modify catalogues and data so that they can be of the web and not only on the web?" As way of conclusion the authors provide steps for both generating and evaluating linked data created by other scholars in the field.

Passant, A., & Laublet P. (2008).  Meaning Of A Tag: A collaborative approach to bridge the gap between tagging and Linked Data. Proceedings of the WWW 2008 Workshop Linked Data on the Web (LDOW 2008), Beijing, China.

Passant and Laublet explore one of the various aspects of the Web 2.0 movement: tagging. Passant and Laublet emphasize that tagging embodies the praxis of the Web 2.0 movement by embracing user control through both categorizing and commenting. Passant and Laublet identify a gap in collaborative user tagging between Semantic Web URIs and free-tagging practices; their MOAT project is designed to bridge this gap. This project addresses some of the major limitations of free-taggin: ambiguity, heterogeneity, and flat organization. Passant and Laublet detail the classes, properties, and application of the MOAT ontology. They conclude by arguing that the structure of the MOAT project makes it a useful tool for both finding and suggesting resources related to similar content.

Boot, P.. (2007).  Mesotext. Framing and exploring annotations. Learned Love. Proceedings of the Emblem Project Utrecht Conference on Dutch Love Emblems and the Internet (November 2006).

Peter Boot explores the scholarly primitive of annotation. Boot's central argument is that the "ultimate justification for digitisation efforts is not [...] mere electronic availability of the texts [but that the] wider issue is to make the content of the works available as potential nodes in a larger digital network that will include not just the sources but also the tools, the output and the intermediate products of scholarship." His purpose is to dig into the concept of annotation in order to explore what it can accomplish. Boot coins the term mesotext to refer to a body of annotations, and uses case studies from EDITOR and RolandHT to direct his discussion. Boot concludes with a list of seven conditions of a successful mesotext and encourages that future work be undertaken in researching annotation exchange.

Dombrowski, Q., & Denbo S. (2013).  TEI and Project Bamboo. Journal of the Text Encoding Initiative.

Project Bamboo, a cyberinfrastructure initiative supported by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, takes as its core mission the enhancement of arts and humanities research through the development of shared technology services. Rather than developing new tools for curating or analyzing data, Project Bamboo aims to provide core infrastructure services including identity and access management, collection interoperability, and scholarly data management. The longer-term goal is for many organizations and projects to leverage those services so as to direct their own resources towards innovative tool or collection development. In addition, Bamboo seeks to model a paradigm for tool integration that focuses on tools as discrete services (such as a morphology annotation service and a geoparser service, instead of a web-based environment that does morphological annotation and geoparsing) that can be applied to texts, individually or in combination with other services, to enable complex curatorial and analytical workflows. This paper addresses points of intersection between Project Bamboo and TEI over the course of Bamboo's development, including the role of TEI in Bamboo's ongoing development work. The paper highlights the significant contributions of the TEI community to the early development of the project through active participation in the Bamboo Planning Project. The paper also addresses the influence of TEI on the Bamboo Technology Project's collection interoperability and corpus curation/analysis initiatives, as well as its role in current (as of October 2012) development work.

Dombrowski, Q. (2014).  What Ever Happened to Project Bamboo?. Literary and Linguistic Computing. 29, 326–339.

Quinn Dombrowski charts the evolution of Project Bamboo in this article - from its initial planning stages, through its development, and eventually to its untimely end. Project Bamboo was motivated by a desire to "enhance arts and humanities research through development of infrastructure and support for shared technology services." The project was aimed at addressing three main issues: (i) 2/3 of time spent on humanities technology projects goes into developing the technology and not the content, (ii) most digital projects are centred on "yet another" website or database, and (iii) many projects "reinvent the wheel" because they are unaware of past initiatives in the same area. In order to combat these problems, Project Bamboo sought to connect "humanities researchers, computer science researchers, information scientists, librarians, and campus technologists." With the hope of developing scaleable, cost-effective, stable project, Project Bamboo was given an initial Mellon grant. However, unfortunately due to restructuring changes and the like, the project's funding was halted before the implementation stage.

Barbera, M., Meschini F., Morbidoni C., & Tomasi F. (2013).  Annotating Digital Libraries and Electronic Editions in a Collaborative and Semantic Perspective. (Agosti, M., Esposito F., Ferilli S., & Ferro N., Ed.).Digital Libraries and Archives. 45–56.

The distinction between digital libraries and electronic editions is becoming more and more subtle. The practice of annotation represents a point of convergence of two only apparently separated worlds. The aim of this paper is to present a model of collaborative semantic annotation of texts (SemLib project), suggesting a system that find in Semantic Web and Linked Data the solution technologies for enabling structured semantic annotation, also in the field of electronic editions in Digital Humanities domain. The main purpose of SemLib is to develop an application so to make easy for developers the integration of annotation software in digital libraries, which are different both for technical implementations and managed contents, and provide to users, indifferently from their cultural backgrounds, a simple system which could be used as a front-end. We present, for this purpose, a final example of semantic annotation in a specific context: a digital edition of a literary text and the issues that an annotation task involves.