Bibliography

Forsyth JC. Playing with Wench-Like Words: Copia and Surplus in the Internet Shakespeare Edition of Cymbeline. Early Modern Literary Studies: A Journal of Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century English Literature. 2004;9.
Abstract:

This informally written article by Jennifer Forsyth - originally presented as a talk - discusses emotion in the creation of editions. Forsyth uses her experience as the editor of the Internet Shakespeare Editions Cymbeline to inform her exploration of this topic. For Forsyth, publishing and emotion are intimately linked. Forsyth acknowledges that "technical wizardry" has provided contemporary editors with the ability to interact with their readers. Forsyth argues that "well-informed, interested, and intelligent readers" could easily be invited to collaborate with the traditional lone editor in order to create a more dynamic edition. Forsyth concludes by arguing that perhaps by alleviating the pressure of single editor that must know all, editions could become more fluid.

Ullyot M. Digital Humanities Projects. Renaissance Quarterly. 2013;66:937-947.
Abstract:

This paper addresses the question of how digital databases should function in the circulation of academic information, and ability of evaluating the promotion or tenure for leader investigators on such projects. In this review, Ullyot assesses five databases related to scholarship between the Middle Ages and the Enlightenment. Ullyot also focused in on resources that have significantly updated their coverages or design in the past two years. This hones in on one of the key differences between a digital database and a monograph: the ability to evolve. In conclusion, Ullyot points out that these databases represent the new ways of engaging with and accessing information.

Abstract:

This paper deals with the application of topic modeling to a corpus of 17th-century scholarly correspondences built up by the CKCC project. The topic modeling approaches considered are latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), latent semantic analysis (LSA), and random indexing (RI). After describing the corpus and the topic modeling approaches, we present an experiment for the quantitative evaluation of the performance of the various topic modeling approaches in reproducing human-labeled words in a subset of the corpus. In our experiments random indexing shows the best performance, with scope for further improvement. Next we discuss the role of topic modeling in the CKCC Epistolarium, the virtual research environment that is being developed for exploring and analysing the CKCC corpus. The key feature of topic modeling is its ability to calculate similarities between words and texts. In an example we illustrate how such an approach may yield results that transcend a regular text search.

Crane G, Fuchs B. The symbiosis between content and technology in the perseus digital library. In: Proceedings of the First {ACM}+{IEEE} Joint Conference on Digital Libraries , 1998.; 2000.
Abstract:

This paper describes the creation of a new humanities digital library collection: 11,000,000 words and 10,000 images representing books, images and maps on pre-twentieth century London and its environs. The London collection contained far more dense and precise information than the materials from the Greco-Roman world on which we had previously concentrated. The London collection thus allowed us to explore new problems of data structure, manipulation, and visualization. This paper contrasts our model for how humanities digital libraries are best used with the assumptions that underlie many academic digital libraries on the one hand and more literary hypertexts on the other. Since encoding guidelines such as those from the {TEI} provide collection designers with far more options than any one project can realize, this paper describes what structures we used to organize the collection and why. We particularly emphasize the importance of mining historical "authority lists" (encyclopedias, gazetteers, etc.) and then generating automatic "span-to-span" links within the collection.

Abstract:

This paper describes the Perseus Garner, an experiment in encoding and displaying the dense interlinkage among primary and secondary texts of interest to students and scholars of the Early Modern period. Because these texts co-exist in an integrated digital library, readers can exploit a suite of tools to discover new relationships and ask new questions. Perseus’s dense interlinking does more than make connections explicit, however: it foregrounds them in a way that is troubling to those who worry that disturbing the traditional hierarchy of primary sources and secondary commentary will draw readers away from close contact with literature. Despite its shortcomings, the Perseus Garner suggests an aim for this research: a hypervariorum whose mode of conceptualizing and rendering the relationship of text and annotation challenges the traditional model of “perpetual commentary” and promises to denature synthetic criticism into a full, turbid stream of scholarly discovery and critical opinion.

Eschenfelder KR, Johnson A. Managing the data commons: Controlled sharing of scholarly data. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 2014;65:1757-1774.
Abstract:

This paper describes the range and variation in access and use control policies and tools used by 24 web-based data repositories across a variety of fields. It also describes the rationale provided by repositories for their decisions to control data or provide means for depositors to do so. Using a purposive exploratory sample, we employed content analysis of repository website documentation, a web survey of repository managers, and selected follow-up interviews to generate data. Our results describe the range and variation in access and use control policies and tools employed, identifying both commonalities and distinctions across repositories. Using concepts from commons theory as a guiding theoretical framework, our analysis describes the following five dimensions of repository rules, or data commons boundaries: locus of decision making (depositor vs. repository), degree of variation in terms of use within the repository, the mission of the repository in relation to its scholarly field, what use means in relation to specific sorts of data, and types of exclusion.

Abstract:

This paper discusses recent trends in digital resources for early modern literary studies, as well as the implications of these resources for research and scholarship. In addition to comparing the use by scholars of print reference works and online databases, the essay analyzes the recent shift from ‘first-generation’ digital resources, such as the English Short Title Catalogue (ESTC) and Early English Books Online (EEBO), to newer ‘second-generation’ resources like DEEP: Database of Early English Playbooks. Rather than strive for comprehensive coverage of early modern print culture, as ESTC and EEBO do, these ‘second-generation’ sites typically aim for in-depth coverage of a particular kind of text or document. DEEP, for example, is a searchable database of all extant plays printed in England to 1660, while the English Broadside Ballad Archive focuses on sixteenth- and seventeenth-century ballads. This shift in emphasis – from comprehensiveness to specialized subject matter – has resulted in, and been driven by, changes in thinking about the fundamental architecture of the databases, their searchability, and their analytical and editorial principles, all of which have significant ramifications for the type of research they enable.

Abstract:

This paper is an overview of some recent developments within the Oxford Text Archive (OTA). Specifically it focuses on the use of various forms of metadata used within the OTA, including the manipulation of the TEI header, as a means of assisting in the discovery and delivery of resources from the OTA. The paper explores the use of metadata throughout the Arts and Humanities Data Service as a whole, and how this has facilitated the building of an integrated gateway to digital humanities resources. Finally there is a brief discussion on how the OTA currently provides access to its holdings via the WWW and a look at some possible future developments.

Abstract:

This paper narrates the development, workflow, success, challenges, and future directions of the Renaissance English Knowledgebase (REKn) and Professional Reading Environment (PReE) projects. Siemens and the research team reflect on the challenges of scalable data, document harvesting, and versioning for a web application. Facing and overcoming these hurdles leaves REKn and PReE facing new directions, namely the rebuilding of the resources and integration of social media. To conclude, the authors of this essay recount the learning experiences brought about through designing and experimenting with these tools. Finally, they acknowledge the partnerships that assisted in getting REKn and PReE to where they are today as well as their ongoing collaborations.

Abstract:

This paper presents a case study evaluating the Internet Shakespeare Editions under the guidelines developed from the LAIRAH (Log Analysis of Internet Resources in the Arts and Humanities) project. The LAIRAH project was a fifteen-month study that assessed what influences "long-term sustainability and the use of digital resources in the humanities." The aim of the research was to discover if these projects held any common characteristics that might be determined as key factors in a project's success. The final result of this research was the composition of a list of best practices. The researchers applied the best practices to an evaluation of the Internet Shakespeare Editions and concluded that it was an excellent, clear, user-centred resource. In conclusion, the researchers acknowledge that the Internet Shakespeare Editions project "is an example of excellent practice in the construction of digital humanities resources."

Abstract:

This presentation by Stephen Pumfrey explores his personal triumphs and struggles trying to use the data on EEBO to answer a historical research question through text mining. As Pumfrey conducted searches in the database, more questions came to the surface. Eventually he was led to methodologies of "frequency analysis, corpus linguistics and historical data mining" to answer his queries. Pumfrey critically reflects on the challenges he encountered and what he learnt trying to answer his questions using digital methodologies on a digital database. From experimenting with Boolean search terms to painstakingly plotting graphs by hand, Pumfrey honestly acknowledges the shortcomings of his research and opens his experiences up as a helpful case study.

Abstract:

This project will investigate innovative technology to structure and lend meaning to a large corpus of unstructured information. The objectives of this project are: to investigate how text analytics and semantic mark-up tools can be used to enable researchers to discover new insights contained within the digital humanities; to capture some aspects of the subtle processes by which researchers model the meaning of documents and to make key aspects of their knowledge available to other researchers; to prototype and evaluate selected tools which achieve these objectives, using the transcribed 1641 Depositions as a corpus of unstructured humanities content.

Terpstra N, Teasdale S. Renaissance Studies in Canada – An overview of Research Centers, University Programs and Faculty. In: Dreßen A, , editors. Teaching the Renaissance {III}. kunsttexte.de; 2012. 2. 29. (kunsttexte.de).
Abstract:

This research bibliography, published in 2012, provides an overview of Renaissance Studies in Canada. Terpstra and Teasdale map the terrain of the field by detailing information on Renaissance Studies across six categories: Research Centres; Programs and Concentrations; Research Chairs; Research Groups and Societies; Online Projects; and Faculty at Canadian Universities.

Abstract:

This review by Susan Bennett examines two CD-ROM publications of Shakespeare's corpus. The first project, The World Shakespeare Bibliography 1987-1994, is an evolving bibliographical research project that aims at cataloguing and annotating entries for all of the important scholarly materials related to Shakespeare published since 1900. Bennett praises this project for its detail, its clarity, and its lofty undertaking. However, Bennett notes that this resource is relatively expensive. The Norton Shakespeare Workshop develops an interactive and multimedia-enhanced study space for students of Shakespeare. While Bennett praises the innovative structure of the resource, she argues that the CD-ROM was "oddly unlike the claims made for it." The interface is unfriendly and lacks guidance for new users. Both publications offer examples on how new technologies are being leveraged to carry out important academic scholarship.

Abstract:

This review of EEBO works on a granular, user-focused level by executing various searches through the database and rigourously documenting the successes or failures of the task. Jowett and Egan address issues of spelling variances, publication dates, typographical errors, obtaining page images, and downloading materials. While many challenges were identified, Jowett and Egan do note that the resource looks to be improving these glitches with each new and updated iteration. Jowett and Egan specifically discuss the potential integration of EEBO and LION - noting that, if connected, "the potential usefulness will be greater than the sum of these two databases." To conclude, while Jowett and Egan are not convinced that EEBO is a worthwhile investment for institutions that currently hold the UMI microfilms, they argue that "libraries who do not have the microfilms should certainly be urged to obtain access to this resource."

Abstract:

This review of three collaborative projects focuses on the process of digitizing and making accessible the manuscript works of Isaac Newton. Guicciardini begins this review on outlining the state of the field prior to the interventions of these three digital projects: Newton's manuscripts were relatively inaccessible, scattered around the globe, and had yet to be thoroughly and entirely edited. The Newton Project and its two sister projects (The Chymistry of Isaac Newton and The Newton Project Canada) "have provided momentous contributions to our understanding of Newton’s religion and alchemy" through the digitization his manuscript papers. Guicciardini praises these resources for complying with "the highest standards required in the field of digital humanities," and for providing open access to these materials both within and beyond the academy. Guicciardini concludes by stressing how monumental these resources are in Newton scholarship.

Medieval and Renaissance Drama in England. Vol 24. Cerasano S.P, Bly M, Hirschfeld HAnne, editors. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press; 2011.
Abstract:

This volume of Medieval and Renaissance Drama in England features the a symposium on theatre history resources alongside four additional articles and eleven book reviews. Several of the publications speak to Records of Early English Drama (REED) and the Lost Plays Database.

Ziegler G. Women Writers Online: An Evaluation and Annotated Bibliography of Web Resources. Early Modern Literary Studies: A Journal of Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century English Literature. 2001;6.
Abstract:

Using Paul Delany's term docuverse (a large collection of electronically stored and linked documents, connected to a computer network), Ziegler discusses how electronic collections are limitless in their manipulability. Ziegler argues that the web allows people to interact with texts in different ways - through comparison, drawing intertextual connections, or providing different contexts. However, while computers "may allow us to weave a richer and different kind of text than before, but such text-making is at present still very time consuming, requiring hours of searching on the web, where we are often frustrated by not finding exactly what we want." Ziegler highlights issues of upkeep, mobility, and transferability when it comes to electronic texts. To conclude Ziegler emphasizes the importance to remembering the embodied form of a text, even when encountering them online. Following Ziegler's article she produces an annotated bibliography of Early Modern writers from the Women Writers Online archive.

Abstract:

We outline a paradigm to preserve results of digital scholarship, whether they are query results, feature values, or topic assignments. This paradigm is characterized by using annotations as multifunctional carriers and making them portable. The testing grounds we have chosen are two significant enterprises, one in the history of science, and one in Hebrew scholarship. The first one (CKCC) focuses on the results of a project where a Dutch consortium of universities, research institutes, and cultural heritage institutions experimented for 4 years with language techniques and topic modeling methods with the aim to analyze the emergence of scholarly debates. The data: a complex set of about 20.000 letters. The second one (DTHB) is a multi-year effort to express the linguistic features of the Hebrew bible in a text database, which is still growing in detail and sophistication. Versions of this database are packaged in commercial bible study software. We state that the results of these forms of scholarship require new knowledge management and archive practices. Only when researchers can build efficiently on each other's (intermediate) results, they can achieve the aggregations of quality data by which new questions can be answered, and hidden patterns visualized. Archives are required to find a balance between preserving authoritative versions of sources and supporting collaborative efforts in digital scholarship. Annotations are promising vehicles for preserving and reusing research results.

Crowther S, Jordan E, Wernimong J, Nunn H. New Scholarship, New Pedagogies: Views from the 'EEBO Generation'. Early Modern Literary Studies: A Journal of Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century English Literature. 2008;14.
Abstract:

With the exponential increase in primary objects available in digital databases, scholars must manage how we access these documents. This article, authored by junior scholars, explores the position of massive database projects as the dominant resource for the research of academics just entering the field. Some of the recognizable advantages of EBBO are its extensive collection and easy access to the collections at any time of day or day of the week. The digital archive also constructs experiences where students must struggle through the historical and material differences of earlier manuscript or printing practices - especially those database resource that present digital facsimiles. This presents a great teaching moment. In conclusion, Crowther et al. discuss how EEBO can be leveraged to offer perspectives on distant and close reading - which these scholars argue are intimately connected.