Bibliography

Abstract:

In this article, Anne Mahoney introduces a guided tour of the Perseus Digital Library, an expanding online open access library for Ancient Greek and Roman materials, from the perspective of Greek and Latin teachers. Through a set of examples and images directly from the website, Mahoney demonstrates how Perseus Digital Library is a useful resource for students because it encourages active learning through a set of different mediums. The interconnected nature of the available tools, such as interconnected texts, language assistance, maps, timelines, and others, make it an especially useful resource to gain a deep and well-rounded knowledge of the ancient world. Mahoney concludes that through the Perseus Digital Library, students not only have the chance to master the languages, but also gain cultural knowledge of these civilizations.

McManus BF, Rubino CA. Classics and Internet Technology. American Journal of Philology. 2003;124:601-608.
Abstract:

In this article, Barbara McManus and Carl Rubino refer to computers and the internet as the next big thing since the creation of the printing press and discuss the opportunities they present in enhancing classical scholarship and pedagogy. One of the main focuses is on the advantages the web offers pedagogy, such as resource-based learning, collaborative learning, control over learning, interactivity, and inexpensive publication opportunities for students. The authors also offer a number of resources for three main categories: designing assignments, language study assignments, art and artifact assignments. Research and scholarship benefits greatly since databases can be accessed from individual workstations, and the process of publishing has become easier and more practical through the use of computers and the internet for editing, web-based publication, and collaboration. Although there are certain issues around web-based scholarship, such as copyright, access, and archiving, it still offers exciting possibilities for teaching and scholarship in classical studies.

Abstract:

In this article, Crompton, Arbuckle, and Siemens explore the potential of scholarly editing in a public space. They draw on their experience building the Devonshire Manuscript social edition and refer to their experiment in social editing as sitting at the intersection between academia and social media. Some of the benefits the authors identify include the ability to continually improve the edition over time and the emphasis on scholarly process rather than product. Some of the challenges they identify include problems with interface and gender imbalances. Moving forward, Crompton, Arbuckle, and Siemens hope to continue exploring social editing and publishing platforms.

Abstract:

In this article, Hitchcock and Shoemaker explore the Old Bailey Proceedings Online project. The article begins with an introduction to the resource being digitized: a collection on 100,000 trials that comprises the largest single resource of non-elite life records ever published. As Hitchcock and Shoemaker demonstrate, the objective of the Old Bailey Proceedings Online project is to create a database of searchable, digital images to allows scholars to easily access and track down what they are looking for in the archive. As Hitchcock and Shoemaker argue, because of the substantive effort to type, tag, and transfer this data online, the Old Bailey Proceedings is now both an incredible pedagogical and historical resource. While they acknowledge the various challenges of creating an online resource, Hitchcock and Shoemaker submit that the project’s continued efforts to add entries and manage tools mitigate these concerns.

Abstract:

In this article, Ian Lancashire discusses the development of LEME (Lexicons of Early Modern English). LEME is working alongside the Early Modern English Dictionaries Online project in order to accomplish the “grand challenge” of establishing a period lexicon. Lancashire touches on the design features of both the textbase and virtual database outputs of the project. As a lead investigator of the project, Lancashire works with a team of researchers. He asserts that each team member’s work on the project flows back into his or her own research interests. Lancashire demonstrates this by exploring the richness of lexicons in relation to Shakespeare’s work.

Jenstad J. Using Early Modern Maps in Literary Studies: Views and Caveats from London. In: Dear M, Ketchum J, Richardson D, Luria S, editors. GeoHumanities: Art, History, Text at the Edge of Place. Hoboken : Taylor & Francis; 2011.
Abstract:

In this article, Janelle Jenstad discusses the intersection of mapping and Early Modern literature. Jenstad argues that local place is integral to the meaning and humour in Early Modern drama. In the hundreds of years between the publication of the literature and a reader encountering it today, nuances can be lost - unless reading is done in consultation with a map. Jenstad turns to her own digital, pedagogical project - The Map of Early Modern London - that uses the Agas map of London from the 1560s to plot literary references to place. Mapping the literature of London onto a map helps to push these boundaries. By the same token, the visual maps takes readers into an environment "in a way that mere words cannot."

Abstract:

In this article, Marc Plamondon discusses his work on two major digital projects: Lexicons of Early Modern English (LEME) and Representative Poetry Online (RPO). Plamondon focuses on his efforts in the evolution and restructuring of these databases. He discusses the various advantages and challenges of creating a relational database. Some of these topics include custom XML coding, lemmatization, project finances and appropriation of funds, integrating digital tools, and creating a better user experience.

Abstract:

In this article, Michael Brown reviews The Records of the Scottish Parliament (RPS) project. Brown remarks on the development of the project, and its technological shift from producing a CD-ROM to producing an online resource. Specifically, Brown concentrates on the ephemerality of online resources and their constant demand for upkeep. Brown highlights the significance of the material housed in this database and its place as "one of the principal sources for the understanding of the history of the Scottish realm and polity." Brown argues that "[I]t is not going too far to suggest that the publication of the RPS will have a revolutionary effect on the access of scholars and students to the available evidence of the activities, attendance and procedures of the Scottish parliament."

Abstract:

In this article, Michael Leslie discusses the development of the Hartlib Papers project. The Hartlib Papers project began in the mid-1980s at the University of Sheffield. The project’s objective is to transcribe, categorize, and make accessible over 20,000 manuscript pages of Samuel Hartlib. Hartlib is a minimally known figure from the seventeenth-century whose collection of papers is vast in both its size and its variety. Leslie recounts the project’s history and gestures towards its future. Issues of transcription, image production, and publication (in print, online, and digital formats) are discussed.

Knutson RL, McInnis D. The Lost Plays Database: A Wiki for Lost Plays. Medieval and Renaissance Drama in England. 2011;24:46-57.
Abstract:

In this article, Roslyn Knutson and David McInnis present the Lost Plays Database (LPD), an open-access wiki platform that disseminates information to scholars and researchers on lost plays of the early modern period. Knutson and McInnis argue that this information is valuable to scholars because it expands the field of repertory and cultural studies, and because these plays occupied and important position in the theatric marketplace of the time. The authors provide an overview of the practical and theoretical issues that went into building the database, keeping in mind the goal of having as much information present directly in the database, even it is present on other platforms or the information is not completely reliable. They tackle this latter issue by adding a “For What It’s Worth” category to the database where the most fragmentary and disconnected information is stored, and demonstrate how its usefulness since researchers’ contributions in this section move the lost play closer to be identifiable. The authors conclude by discussing their next steps in terms of funding for maintaining and expanding their project.

Abstract:

In this article, Siemens et al. advocate for the emergence of the social edition as the model of a digital, textual edition. The authors acknowledge the different types of editions that exist in print but suggest that the digital space creates new opportunities – specifically, for the social edition. Siemens et al. strive to create a toolkit for scholars to turn to in building a social, textual edition. They emphasize the importance of moving the edition from a siloed, single-author model to an open community of knowledge creation. Additionally, they argue that the social edition shifts the importance of process to the forefront by allowing interpretations to be made collaboratively. This “text is fluid, agency as collaborative” approach is something the authors argue has yet to come forth in scholarship.

Abstract:

In this article, Thomas Peck discusses the emergence of Early English Books Online (EEBO). Peck begins by briefly describing the evolution of the database from microfilm to a digital resource. Next, Peck focuses in on some of the basic principles or goals grounding the EEBO project, namely, the standardization of records, the efficiency of searching, the usability of the interface, and the fostering of partnerships with scholarly institutions. Peck also illuminates some of the technical aspects of producing this digital database by discussing the scanning process. Peck notes that EEBO is built from the microfilms and not the original documents. Finally, Peck rounds off the article by discussing how EEBO brings "literature alive for students."

Iliffe R. Digitizing Isaac: The Newton Project and an Electronic Edition of Newton’s Papers. In: Force JE, Hutton S, editors. Newton and Newtonianism. Springer Netherlands; 2004. 2. p. 23-38p. (International Archives of the History of Ideas/Archives internationales d’histoire des idées).
Abstract:

In this book chapter, Rob Iliffe discusses the project of digitizing Newton's corpus. Overall, Iliffe argues that scholarship's move to the web has "dramatically changed the relationship between the editor and the reader/ end-user." In conclusion, Iliffe underscores how "necessarily collaborative" an endeavour like the Newton Project is. Iliffe advocates for the communication between groups developing web-based resources in order to integrate their data and ensure compatibility.

Abstract:

In this brief article, Leon Pat summarizes the project aims of Early English Books Online (EEBO) and then provides qualitative evidence from instructors and scholars using the resource to contextualize its usefulnesThe scholars' statements note how tremendously EEBO has transformed the research process. However, despite how deeply has revolutionized research in the Early Modern period, some scholars still prefer "to head off to the research library, bury their head in books." Pat wonders maybe they have just not yet realized that the research Holy Grail is right in front of them.

Pigney S, Hunt K. A Virtual Museum or E-Research? British Printed Images to 1700 and the Digitization of Early Modern Prints. In: Nelson B, Terras M, editors. Digitizing Medieval and Early Modern Culture. Arizona: Arizona Center for Renaissance and Medieval Studies; 2012. 2. p. 289-314p.
Abstract:

In this essay Stephen Pigney and Katherine Hunt discuss the digital database British Printed Images in 1700 (bpi1700) and explore its potential use in modern scholarship. Pigney and Hunt critique two features of the database: creating a structure and developing a subject thesaurus. Pigney and Hunt argue that the value of bpi1700 lies in its ability to become an authoritative catalogue raisonné, as its importance is less defined by "the itemization and presentation of as many individual prints as possible and more in its ability to group prints together in intelligent ways that offer greater contextualization of them as material objects." To conclude, Pigney and Hunt return to the original decision of bpi1700 to be mounted online. They argue that the goals of the project made it well suited for digital publication, despite the challenges that come alongside this choice.

Curran K. Virtual Scholarship: Navigating Early Modern Studies in the World Wide Web. Early Modern Literary Studies: A Journal of Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century English Literature. 2006;12.
Abstract:

In this essay, Curran reviews several Renaissance or Early Modern digital resources in order to answer the question of how to incorporate digital technology in the classroom. Curran examines online journal, electronic texts, databases, manuscript resources, sound repositories, and futuristic web-based scholarship. Within each of these individual venues, Curran cites projects and initiatives applicable to the study of Early Modern materials.

Abstract:

In this essay, Morris L. Cohen surveys how advances in electronic research techniques have reshaped how research in conducted on American legal history. Cohen argues that new technologies developed "over the last twenty-five years have been widespread and overwhelmingly favorable" impact on historical legal research and scholarship. Cohen hypothesizes that these shifts and changes are far from over. While he is uncertain whether these technological innovations have resulted in greater scholarship, Cohen does argue that they have definitely saved time and money.

Abstract:

In this essay, Raymond Siemens discusses different styles or types of edition building practices for electronic editions. The two basic models for electronic editions: the dynamic text approach and the hypertext approach. The dynamic text approach traditionally combines an encoded text with analysis software in order to facilitate dynamic reader engagement. Hypertextual editing is thought to mirror social theories of editing by leveraging hyper textual organization to facilitate the reader's interaction with the text. Siemens argues that, for publishers, producing materials on the Internet "provides the most efficient and universal way of delivering electronic information, much more efficient than a number of platform-specific floppy-disks, CD-ROMs with storage limits of under 1 gigabyte, and awkward digital tape." However, Siemens does note that there are gap between "what is and what should be" when it comes to the current capabilities of Internet editing. As a way of concluding, Siemens briefly addresses the shifting role of the editor in producing an electronic edition.

Abstract:

In this essay, Shawn Martin urges scholars to look back as they look forward: "it is easy to forget that this is not the first time such efforts to 'organize the world's information and make it universally accessible and useful' have been attempted." Harkening back to the debates around microfilms, Martin uses this technological innovation to ground the discussion around our current technology development. Martin traces the evolution of EEBO as a case study. Martin's essay demonstrates how tremendously a project can evolve. One of the greatest shifts has certainly been the movement from preservation to access. To conclude, Martin notes that many of the problems we encounter with digitization are heightened version of the same issues combatted by the development of microfilms.

Abstract:

In this essay, Siemens et al. discuss the inherently social qualities of manuscript miscellanies through the lens of building the Devonshire Manuscript digital edition. The paper begins by discussing the composition and history of the Devonshire Manuscript before moving into a description of the methodology and results of creating a digital edition of this work. As Siemens et al. note, "the contributors to (and participants in) the manuscript speak to each other in the poems," making this a definitively social artifact. In order to visualize these relationships, the research team transformed the manuscript into XML and then used communication network software - PieSpy, Simile Timeline, and TextArc - to create graphics representations of the interactions. Among other observations, these visualizations drew attention to the involvement of women in the composition and circulation of the manuscript, and the verbally playful interactions between scribes writing in an atmosphere rife with tension. In conclusion, Siemens et al. discovered that these visualization tools allowed them a more encompassing view of the text.